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食品科技學院前沿講堂第二十六期公告

聯系人:劉丹聯系方式:84395618發布時間:2019-04-24

報告題目:Food Structure and Digestion: Effects on nutrient release and health outcomes 

食品結構與消化對營養素釋放和健康的影響 

主 講 人 :Peter Wilde 教授  Quadram Institute Bioscience 

報告時間:2019年4月29日(周一)下午3:00-4:00 

報告地點:食品科技學院215學術報告廳 

報告人簡介 

Peter Wilde教授,英國Quadram生物科學研究所負責人,1985年畢業于東安格利亞大學( the University of East Anglia )生物物理專業,在食品研究所(Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich, UK)工作了近30年,主要研究食品系統的膠體和界面特性,包括蛋白質和乳化劑。目前的主要研究控制脂質飲食影響的物理化學機制,包括對脂肪的表面特性如何影響感知的基礎研究,以制定新的脂肪減少策略;設計界面結構,以控制脂肪消化以控制食欲或提高脂溶性營養素和藥物的攝取。國際期刊上發表論文近120篇,其中有6篇文章他引超過100次(H索引=40),出版40篇書籍章節。 


報告摘要 


The debate surrounding nutrition and a healthy diet and what foods are considered healthy or unhealthy, generally focus on the nutrient composition of the foods themselves. This is not surprising as it is the presence (or absence) of the molecules themselves which are essential for the health of an individual or population. These nutrients include macronutrients: protein, carbohydrates and fat all of which are important for energy, building tissues and many other critical physiological functions. They can also be in the form of micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals and other bioactive compounds in our diet that maintain health and prevent disease. Therefore, we focus purely by the nutrient composition of our foods. However, little time is given to the fact that we consume food and not pure nutrients. The food that we eat has a broad range of structures and physico-chemical attributes that control not only how the food appears, tastes and feels in the mouth, but also, and perhaps more importantly how it is digested, and how the nutrients are released and absorbed. 


Food structure and its physico-chemical properties relate more to how the individual chemical components of the food are assembled to form structures from the macromolecular scale upwards that give a food its unique characteristics. These structures could be natural or manufactured. Either way, the response of these structures to digestion will control the rate of digestion and nutrient bioaccessibility. Plant cell walls are highly resistant to digestion, and can encapsulate nutrients and prevent their absorption. Processing techniques which rupture cell wall structures can dramatically increase nutrient uptake without changing nutrient composition of the original food. Some researchers believe that the discovery of cooking by our early ancestors accelerated their physical development by increasing the nutrient availability. Similarly, early processing methods such as milling further increased the metabolizable energy from foods, allowing larger population groups to be fed and sustained more effectively. However, these energy dense foods are driving the modern global epidemics of obesity and type II diabetes, therefore can we utilise food structure to try and reverse this trend? 


圍繞著營養、健康飲食、以及什么樣的食品才是健康或者不健康的種種爭論,當前人們的關注點基本都是食品本身的營養成分,因為食品分子的存在(或不存在)對個人或群體的健康來說都是必需的。這些營養素包括常量營養素,如蛋白質、碳水化合物和脂肪,它們為人體提供能量,也是組織器官和其它生理機能的締造者。這些食品分子也以微量元素形式存在,如維生素、礦物質和其它生物活性物質,它們在日常飲食中為我們維持健康和預防疾病。因此,在很長一段時間里,人們只關注食物中的單個營養素。但是,事實上我們吃的是食物而不是單純的營養素。我們吃的食物具有豐富的結構和物理化學性質,這些不但決定了食物的外觀、味道、口感,而且可能對食物的消化、營養的釋放和吸收有更重要的作用。 


相較于食物中的單個化學組分所形成的結構,食品結構及其物理化學性質對食物的特性具有更顯著的影響。這些食品結構是天然或者加工過程形成的,均可影響食物的消化速率和營養素的生物可接收度。植物細胞壁有很強的抗消化性,并且可以包埋營養素而抑制它們的吸收。植物細胞破壁加工技術在不改變原始營養成分的前提下,可顯著提高營養素的吸收。有些研究者發現,我們祖先發明的烹飪技術,可通過提高營養成分的有效性來加快人體生理機能的構建。同理,早期的加工方法如碾磨也可提高食物的代謝能,從而有效地養活了大量人口。但是,這些高能量密度的食物也誘發了諸如肥胖癥、II型糖尿病等現代全球流行性疾病。因此,我們能通過調控食品結構來改變當下人類健康發展趨勢嗎? 


閱讀次數:323

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